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평화주의 (平和主義)

Attenborough, Richard Samuel


Attenborough, Richard Samuel, Baron of Richmond upon Thames (1923- ), British motion-picture actor and director, known for his versatile performances and for his direction of pacifist films (see Pacifism). Born in Cambridge, England, Attenborough studied acting at the Royal Academy of Dramatic Art in London. He made his motion-picture debut with a small part in the film In Which We Serve (1942), directed by British playwright Noel Coward and British filmmaker David Lean. He later portrayed a teenage killer in Brighton Rock (1947), adapted from a work by British writer Graham Greene. A major role in the British comedy Private's Progress (1956), about World War II (1939-1945), helped to establish him as a leading actor.
In 1960 Attenborough broadened his career when he coproduced and starred in The Angry Silence, in which he portrayed a British laborer who resists a misinformed strike by his coworkers. Three years later he appeared in the American film The Great Escape (1963), based on the true story of a daring escape from a Nazi (see National Socialism) prison camp during World War II. Attenborough made his directorial debut with an unusual war film, Oh! What a Lovely War (1969), a musical satire of British excesses during World War I (1914-1918), adapted from a popular stage play. Attenborough achieved his greatest commercial and critical success as the director of Gandhi (1982), an epic biographical drama based on the life of Indian leader Mahatma Gandhi (see Gandhi, Mohandas Karamchand) that won Academy Awards for best picture, best director, and best leading actor (British performer Ben Kingsley). Other motion pictures directed by Attenborough include Cry Freedom (1987), based on the life and politically motivated murder of black South African leader Stephen Biko; and Shadowlands (1992), a biographical drama of British author C. S. Lewis.

Attenborough's motion-picture appearances have been sporadic since the late 1970s, when he appeared in The Chess Players (1977), by Indian director Satyajit Ray, and The Human Factor (1979), by American director Otto Preminger. He returned to the screen in 1993 to act in Jurassic Park, by American director Steven Spielberg.



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