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Religion

종교 탐방

Jainism

자이나교(─ 敎)

 

 Introduction

Jainism--along with Hinduism and Buddhism--is one of the three most ancient of India's religious traditions still in existence. Its name derives from the Sanskrit verb root ji, "to conquer." The name refers to the ascetic battle that the Jaina monks must fight against the passions and bodily senses in order to gain omniscience and the complete purity of soul that represents the highest religious goal in the Jaina system. The monk-ascetic who achieves this omniscience and purity is called a Jina (literally, "Conqueror," or "Victor"), and adherents to the tradition are called Jainas, or Jains. Although Jainism has a much smaller number of adherents than do Hinduism and Sikhism, its influence on India's culture has been considerable, including significant contributions in philosophy and logic, art and architecture, grammar, mathematics, astronomy and astrology, and literature.

Jainism has largely been confined to India, although the migration of Indians to other, predominantly English-speaking countries has spread its practice to many Commonwealth nations and to the United States. Its continuous existence in India for some 2,500 years is in sharp contrast to Buddhism, which is widespread in Asia but no longer widely practiced in the land of its origin. This gives Jainism a unique status as the only Sanskritic non-Hindu religious tradition to have survived in India to the present.

 

HISTORY

 

Early history (6th century BC-c. 5th century AD).

Jaina history began in the 6th century BC with Vardhamana, who is known as Mahavira ("Great Hero"). Mahavira was the 24th and last Tirthankara (literally, "Ford-maker") of the current age (kalpa) of the world. (Tirthankaras, also called Jinas, are revealers of the Jaina religious path [dharma] who have crossed over life's stream of rebirths and have set the example that all Jainas must follow.) Mahavira was a contemporary of Siddhartha Gautama (the Buddha) and was born in the same area, the lower Gangetic Plain. Although Mahavira was a historical figure, all of the accounts of his life are legendary and serve the ritual life of the Jaina community better than they do the historian. However, a little of the historical circumstances of Mahavira and the early Jaina community can be pieced together from a variety of sources.

The 6th century BC was a period of intense religious activity in the lower Gangetic Plain. In addition to Buddhism, the Ajivika sect, founded by Goshala Maskariputra, appeared; and at about this time, probably in the same region, the two great "forest" Upanishad texts of early Hinduism, the Brihadaranyaka and the Chandogya, came into existence. The prevailing ethos common to all these religious perspectives was asceticism, which stood in contrast to the ritualistic Brahmanic schools associated with the earliest period of classical Hinduism.

Mahavira, like the Buddha, was the son of a chieftain of the Kshatriya (military or ruling) class. At age 30 he renounced his princely status to take up the ascetic life. It is likely that he pursued the discipline of a preestablished ascetic tradition and had a reforming influence on it. His acknowledged status as the 24th Tirthankara (or Jina) means that Jainas perceive him as the last revealer in this cosmic age of the Jaina dharma. Mahavira had 11 disciples (called ganadharas), all of whom were Brahman converts to Jainism; all founded monastic lineages, but only two--Indrabhuti Gautama and Sudharman, the disciples who survived Mahavira--served as the points of origin for the historical Jaina monastic community.

The community appears to have grown quickly--Jaina tradition states that it numbered 14,000 monks and 36,000 nuns at the time of Mahavira's death. From the beginning the community was subject to a number of schismatic movements. Jamali, Mahavira's son-in-law, led the first of seven schisms that occurred during the Jina's lifetime. None of these had a significant effect on the Jaina community. The only schism to have a lasting effect was that between the Svetambaras (literally, "White-robed") and the Digambaras ("Sky-clad"; i.e., naked); this division still exists. The major points of difference between the two concern the question of proper monastic attire and whether or not a soul can attain liberation from a female body (a possibility the Digambaras deny). (see also Shvetambara)

Each sect has its own account of how the schism arose. It appears to have begun as a physical split of the community during the 3rd century BC. According to Digambara tradition, Bhadrabahu I (whom the Digambaras regard as their founder) foresaw a 12-year famine in the Mauryan kingdom of Candra Gupta and took half of the monastic community south with him to Shravana Belgola (near modern Hassan, in Karnataka state). Digambara tradition also states that Candra Gupta accompanied Bhadrabahu as his disciple. Svetambara tradition, however, states that Bhadrabahu went to Nepal and that the Svetambara-Digambara split was led by a monk named Shivabhuti in the last half of the 1st century AD. All differences of doctrine and praxis between the two sects appear to have arisen from this geographical separation.

These differences were formalized through a series of councils that met to preserve and codify the teachings of Mahavira in written form. It was felt that the teachings, preserved orally since his death, were in danger of being lost. Four councils were held between the 4th century BC and the 5th century AD. The last one, held at Valabhi in Saurastra (modern Gujarat state) in either AD 453 or 456, codified the Svetambara canon that is still in use. The Digambara monastic community considered this redaction too corrupt to be normative, and the schism between the two communities became irrevocable.

During this period, Jainism spread from its place of origin westward to Ujjain, where it gained the patronage of Candra Gupta, the grandfather of Ashoka (the last great Mauryan emperor), and later Samprati, the grandson of Ashoka. Later, in the 1st century BC, a monk named Kalakacarya seems to have caused the overthrow of King Gardabhilla of Ujjain and his replacement with the Shahi kings, who were probably of Scythian or Persian origin. By the time of the Gupta dynasty (AD 320-c. 600), Jainas were retaining the patronage of the Gupta emperors of Magadha, but they had become stronger in central and western India than in their homeland.

 

Early medieval developments (500-1100).

The early medieval period was the time of Jainism's greatest flowering, particularly for the Digambara community in the south. The Digambaras gained the patronage of three major dynasties during these centuries--the Gangas in Karnataka (3rd-11th century); the Rastrakutas, whose kingdom was just north of the Ganga realm (8th-12th century); and the Hoysalas in Karnataka (11th-14th century). Digambara monks are reputed to have engineered the succession of the Ganga and the Hoysala dynasties, thus stabilizing uncertain political situations and guaranteeing Jaina political protection and support.

This involvement in politics on the part of the Digambaras allowed Jainism to prosper in Karnataka and the Deccan. An abundance of epigraphical evidence details an elaborate patronage system through which kings, queens, state ministers, and military generals endowed the Jaina community with tax revenues and with direct grants for the construction and upkeep of temples. In addition, many of these political figures had Jaina monks as spiritual teachers and advisers. Two notable examples are Shantala Devi, the queen of the Hoysala king Visnuvardhana, and the Ganga general Chamundaraya, who in the 10th century oversaw the creation of a colossal statue of Bahubali (locally called Gomateshvara; son of Rsabha, the first Tirthankara) at Shravana Belgola.

During this period Digambara writers produced a large amount of philosophical treatises, commentaries, and poetry, which was written in Prakrit, Kannada, and Sanskrit. Much of this literary activity had royal patronage and participation. Noteworthy was the monk Jinasena, whose Sanskrit philosophical and poetic writing had the support of the Rastrakuta king, Amoghavarsa I. Himself an author in Kannada and Sanskrit, Amoghavarsa seems to have renounced his throne and become a disciple of Jinasena in the early 9th century. This privileged position allowed the Digambara Jainas to engage in sectarian debate from a position of strength. Inscriptions and epigraphs describe many of the most important monks of this period as victors over the Buddhists, Brahmans, Vaisnavites, and Shaivites in philosophical and religious debate.

The Svetambaras seem to have been less flamboyantly embroiled in dynastic politics than their southern counterparts, though there is evidence of such activity in Gujarat and Rajasthan that helped establish sympathetic kings in the 8th century (Vanaraja, 716-806) and the 12th century (Kumarapala, whose reign ended with the Muslim invasions). Kumarapala's accession was masterminded by the great Svetambara scholar and minister of state Hemacandra. The Svetambaras were no less productive in literary output than their Digambara counterparts at this period.

Beginning in the early centuries AD, the role of the Jaina layman was articulated with a detail and precision not seen up to that point. The process began for the Digambaras as early as the 2nd to 3rd century; with the Svetambaras it seems to have begun in the 5th to 6th century. The early medieval period was a time of particularly intense reflection for both groups on the role of the laity. A large Avashyaka literature, discussing the layman's religious behaviour and vows, poured forth from these beginnings and lasted until the 17th century. A formalized caste system appeared among the Jaina laity. This was depicted and given authority by Jinasena in his Adipurana, a hagiography of Rsabha and his two sons Bahubali and Bharata. It differed from the Hindu system in that the Kshatriyas were given a place of prominence over the Brahmans; in addition, the Jainas did not see the caste system as an inherent part of the structure of a created universe. There also were differences in the organization of the caste system between the Digambaras and the Svetambaras.

 

Late medieval-early modern developments (1100-1800).

In the period of their greatest influence (6th-late 12th century), Jaina monks ceased being wandering ascetics and tended to become dwellers at temples or monastic residences, surrounded by the comforts that their calling demanded they forego. In addition, the Digambara monks' active involvement in dynastic politics undoubtedly earned them enemies. These two factors led to a decline of Jaina influence in ensuing centuries.

The Svetambara community's eclipse was greatly accelerated by the successful invasion of Muslim forces into western and northern India in the 12th century. With this sudden shift of political control from indigenous to foreign hands, the Svetambara community concentrated on stabilizing itself in the new circumstances. At about this time, the monastic libraries were put underground in Rajasthan to keep the manuscripts from being destroyed and to preserve them better from the elements. There is evidence of Jaina laymen serving as ministers to Muslim rulers, which surely benefited the community.

Reform movements appeared within the community at various times, often stressing the inappropriateness of image worship, especially for monks. This was likely a response to strong Muslim religious values. The most successful of these reform movements was that of the mid-15th-century layman Lonka Saha, which led ultimately to the founding of the Sthanakavasi sect in the 18th century.

By the advent of the Vijayanagar Empire in the 14th century, Digambara Jainism had lost all significant royal support and survived largely by keeping to itself. At this time elaborate temple rituals with Tantric overtones developed within the Digambara community. This, plus the lax attitudes of the administrators of Digambara temple complexes, helped fuel resentment both within and outside the community. This situation made the Digambaras susceptible to attacks by renascent Hindu devotional movements. These movements began in Tamil Nadu as early as the 6th century and in Karnataka in the 12th century. One of the most vigorous of these Hindu movements was that of the Lingayats, or Virashaivas, which arose in full force in the 12th century in northern Karnataka, a stronghold of Digambara Jainism. The Lingayats gained royal support, and many Jainas themselves converted to the Lingayat religion in ensuing centuries.

Digambara laity were among the foremost critics of their community's deteriorating situation. The most significant Digambara reform movement occurred in the late 16th century, led by a layman and poet named Banarasidas. This movement attacked the elaborateness of Digambara ritualism and the cavalier behaviour of its religious leaders.

 

Recent Jaina history.

In modern times, Svetambara Jainism has maintained a more effective organization and has a larger monastic community than its Digambara counterpart. Both communities devote much energy to maintaining temples and publishing critical editions of their religious texts.

In addition, the Jainas stress publicly their deep and long-standing commitment to ahimsa ("nonviolence"). Notable in this connection is the friendship and exchange of letters between Mohandas Gandhi and the Svetambara layman Raychandrabhai Mehta. Gandhi considered his interactions with Mehta to be important in formulating his own ideas on the use of nonviolence as a political tactic.

Jainas have traditionally been professional and mercantile people. These trades have made them adaptable to other environments and societies besides those of India. Many Jainas have emigrated overseas, and this has had the result of increasing international awareness of Jainism.

(G.R.S.)

 

IMPORTANT FIGURES OF JAINA LEGEND

Sixty-three significant figures form the focus of Jaina legend and story. The most important of these are the 24 Tirthankaras, perfected human beings who appear from time to time to preach and embody the Jaina religious path; they represent the highest religious attainment for the Jaina. The Tirthankaras, along with 12 cakravartins ("world conquerors"), nine vasudevas (counterparts of Vasudeva, the patronymic of Krishna), and nine baladevas (counterparts of Balarama, the elder half-brother of Krishna), constitute a list of 54 mahapurusas ("great souls"), to which were later added nine prativasudevas (enemies of the vasudevas). Other, more minor, figures include nine naradas (counterparts of the deity Narada, the messenger between gods and humans), 11 rudras (counterparts of the Vedic god Rudra, from whom Shiva is said to have evolved), and 24 kamadevas (gods of love), all of which show Hindu influences. Bahubali is said to be the first kamadeva.

Subordinated to these figures are the gods, which are classified into four groups: the bhavanavasis (gods of the house), the vyantaras (intermediaries), the jyotiskas (luminaries), and the vaimanikas (astral gods). These, in turn, are divided into several subgroups. Other gods and goddesses also occur in various Jaina texts, such as the 64 dikkumaris (maidens of the directions), who act as nurses to a newborn Tirthankara. Such deities played an important role in ancient Indian folk religion, and the Jainas, Buddhists, and Hindus all assimilated them into their pantheons and rituals.

 

DOCTRINES OF JAINISM

The Jaina's religious goal is the complete perfection and purification of the soul. This can occur only when the soul is in a state of eternal liberation from and nonattachment to corporeal bodies. Liberation of the soul is impeded by the accumulation of karmans (see below Karman), bits of material, generated by a person's actions, that bind themselves to the soul and consequently bind the soul to material bodies through many births; this has the effect of thwarting the full self-realization and freedom of the soul. To understand how the Jainas perceive and address this problem, it is first necessary to explain the Jaina conception of reality.

 

Time and the universe.

Time, according to the Jainas, is eternal and formless. It is conceived as a wheel with 12 spokes called aras ("ages"), six making an ascending arc and six a descending one. In the ascending arc (utsarpini), man progresses in knowledge, age, stature, and happiness, while in the descending arc (avasarpini) he deteriorates. The two cycles joined together make one rotation of the wheel of time, which is called a kalpa.

The world is eternal and uncreated. Its constituent elements, the six substances (dravyas), are soul, matter, time, space, and the principles of motion and the arrest of motion. These are eternal and indestructible, but their conditions change constantly.

Jainas divide the inhabited universe into five parts. The lower world (adholoka) is subdivided into seven tiers, each one darker and more tortuous than the one above it. The middle world (madhyaloka) consists of numberless concentric continents separated by seas, the centre continent of which is called Jambudvipa. Human beings occupy Jambudvipa, the second continent, and half of the third; the focus of Jaina activity, however, is Jambudvipa, the only continent on which it is possible for the soul to achieve liberation. The celestial world (urdhvaloka) consists of two categories of heaven: one for the souls of those who may or may not have entered the Jaina path and one for the souls of those who are far along on the path and are close to the time of their emancipation. At the apex of the occupied universe is the siddhashila, the crescent-shaped abode of liberated souls (siddhas). Finally, there are some areas inhabited solely by ekendriyas, organisms that have only a single sense. Although ekendriyas permeate all parts of the occupied universe, there are places where they are the only living beings. (see also hell)

 

Jiva and ajiva.

Jaina reality is constituted by jiva ("soul," or "living substance") and ajiva ("non-soul," or "inanimate substance"). Ajiva is divided into two categories: (1) non-sentient and material and (2) non-sentient and nonmaterial. All but jiva are without life.

The essential characteristics of jiva are consciousness (cetana), bliss (sukha), and energy (virya). In its pure state, jiva possesses these qualities in infinite measure. The souls, infinite in number, are divisible in their embodied state into two main classes, immobile and mobile, according to the number of sense organs possessed by the body they inhabit. The first group consists of souls inhabiting immeasurably small particles of earth, water, fire, and air, plus the vegetable kingdom, which possess only the sense of touch. The second group comprises souls that inhabit bodies that have between two and five sense organs. The Jainas believe that the four elements (earth, water, fire, and air) also are animated by souls. Moreover, the universe is full of an infinite number of minute beings, nigodas, which are slowly evolving.

A jiva is formless and genderless and cannot be perceived by the senses. A soul is not all-pervasive but can, by contraction or expansion, occupy various amounts of space. Like the light of a lamp in a small or a large room, it can fill both the smaller and larger bodies it occupies. While the soul assumes the exact dimensions of the body it occupies, it is not identical with that body.

Matter (pudgala) has the characteristics of touch, taste, smell, and colour. Its essential characteristic is lack of consciousness. The smallest unit of matter is the atom (paramanu). Heat, light, and shade are forms of fine matter.

The non-sentient, nonmaterial substances are the principles of motion and its arrest, space, and time. They are always pure and are not subject to defilement. The principles of motion and its arrest permeate the universe; they do not exist independently but, rather, form a necessary precondition for any object's movement or coming to rest. Space is infinite, all-pervasive, and formless and provides accommodation for the entire universe. It is divided into occupied (i.e., the universe) and unoccupied portions. Time is said to consist of innumerable eternal and indivisible particles of "non-corporeal substance" that never mix with one another but that fill the entire universe. Thus, the non-sentient, nonmaterial substances form the context within which occurs the drama of a jiva's struggle to extricate itself from involvement with matter.

 

Karman.

The fundamental tenet of Jaina doctrine is that all phenomena are linked together in a universal chain of cause and effect. Every event has a definite cause behind it. By nature each soul is pure, possessing infinite knowledge, bliss, and power; however, these faculties are restricted from beginning-less time by foreign matter coming in contact with the soul. Fine foreign matter producing the chain of cause and effect, of birth and death, is karman, a fine atomic substance and not a process as in Hinduism. To be free from the shackles of karman, a person must stop the influx of new karmans and eliminate the acquired ones.

Karmic particles are acquired as the result of intentional action tinged with passionate expression. Acquired karmans can be annihilated through a process called nirjara, which consists of fasting, not eating certain kinds of food, control over taste, resorting to lonely places, mortifications of the body, atonement and expiation for sins, modesty, service, study, meditation, and renunciation of the ego. Nirjara is, thus, the calculated cessation of passionate action.

A soul passes through various stages of spiritual development before becoming free from all karmic bondages. These stages of development (gunasthanas) involve progressive manifestations of the innate faculties of knowledge and power and are accompanied by decreasing sinfulness and increasing purity.

Jivas become imprisoned in a succession of bodies owing to their connection with karmic matter. These embodied souls bear different colours or tints (leshya), varying according to the merits or demerits of the particular being. This doctrine of leshya, peculiar to Jainism, seems to have been borrowed from the Ajivika doctrine of six classes of bodies, expounded by Goshala Maskariputra. The six leshyas in Jainism are, in the ascending order of man's spiritual progress, black, blue, gray, fiery red, lotus-pink (or yellow), and white.

 

Theories of knowledge as applied to liberation.

In Jaina thought, four stages of perception--observation, will to recognize, determination, and impression--lead to a subjective cognition (matijñana), the first of five kinds of knowledge (jñana). The second kind of knowledge is shrutajñana, derived from the scriptures and general information. Both of these are mediated cognition, based on external conditions perceived by the senses. There are three kinds of immediate knowledge--avadhi (supersensory perception), manahparyaya (reading the thoughts of others), and kevala, which is the stage of omniscience. Kevala is necessarily accompanied by freedom from karmic obstruction and by direct experience of the soul's pure form unblemished by its attachment to matter. Omniscience is the foremost attribute of a liberated jiva, the emblem of its purity; thus, a liberated soul, such as a Tirthankara, is called a kevalin ("possessor of omniscience").

According to Jainism, yoga, the ascetic physical and meditative discipline of the monk, is the means to the attainment of omniscience and thus to moksa, or liberation. Yoga is the cultivation of true knowledge of reality, faith in the teachings of the Tirthankaras, and pure conduct; it is, thus, intimately connected to the three jewels (ratnatraya) of right knowledge, right belief, and right conduct (respectively, samyagjñana, samyagdarshana, and samyakcaritra). (See INDIAN PHILOSOPHY .)

 

Jaina ethics.

The ratnatraya constitute the basis of Jaina ethics. Right knowledge, faith, and conduct must be cultivated together; none of them can be achieved in the absence of the others. Right faith leads to calmness or tranquillity, detachment, kindness, and the renunciation of pride of birth, beauty of form, wealth, scholarship, prowess, and fame. Right faith leads to perfection only when followed by right conduct. Yet, there can be no virtuous conduct without right knowledge, which consists of clear distinction between the self and the nonself. Knowledge of scriptures is distinguished from inner knowledge. Knowledge without faith and conduct is futile. Without purification of mind, all austerities are mere bodily torture. Right conduct is thus spontaneous, not a forced mechanical quality. Attainment of right conduct is a gradual process, and a householder can observe only partial self-control; when he becomes a monk, he is further able to observe more comprehensive rules of conduct.

Two separate courses of conduct are laid down for the ascetics and the laity. In both cases the code of morals is based on the doctrine of ahimsa, or nonviolence. Since thought gives rise to action, violence in thought merely precedes violent behaviour. Violence in thought, then, is the greater and subtler form of violence, because it arises from ideas of attachment and aversion, grounded in passionate states, which result from negligence or lack of care in behaviour. Jainism enjoins avoidance of all forms of injury, whether committed by body, mind, or speech. (see also moral code, ahimsa, or ahimsa)

 

RITUAL PRACTICES AND RELIGIOUS AND SOCIAL INSTITUTIONS

 

The monks and their practices.

Svetambaras acknowledge two classes of monks: jinakalpins, who wander naked and use the hollows of their palms as alms bowls; and sthavirakalpins, who retain minimal possessions such as a robe, an alms bowl, a whisk broom, and a mukhavastrika (a piece of cloth held over the mouth to protect against the ingestion of small insects). A monk must obey the "great vows" (mahavratas) to avoid injuring any life-form, lying, stealing, having sexual intercourse, or accepting personal possessions. To help him live out his vows, a monk's life is carefully regulated in all details by specific ordinances and by the oversight of his superiors. For example, to help him observe the vow of noninjury, a monk may not take meals after dark, since to do so would increase the possibility that he would harm any insects that might be attracted to the food. Monks are expected to suffer with equanimity such hardships as those imposed by the weather, geographic terrain, travel, or physical abuse. Exceptions are allowed in emergencies, since a monk who survives a calamity can purify himself by confession and by practicing even more rigorous austerities. (see also monasticism, asceticism)

Among the Digambaras, a full-fledged monk remains naked, though there are lower-grade monks who wear a loincloth and keep with them one piece of cloth not more than one and one-half yards long. Digambara monks use a peacock-feather duster and water gourd, live apart from human habitations, and beg and eat only once a day, using the palm of one hand as an alms bowl.

Eight essentials noted for the conduct of monks include the three guptis (care in thought, speech, and action) and the five samitis (kinds of vigilance over conduct). The six avashyakas, or obligations, are equanimity; praise of the Tirthankaras (Jinas); obeisance to the Jinas, teachers, and scriptures; atonement; resolution to avoid sinful activities; and meditation.

The type of austerities in which a monk engages, the length of time he engages in them, and their severity are carefully regulated by his preceptor, who takes into account the monk's spiritual development, his capacity to withstand the austerities, and his ability to understand how they help further his spiritual progress at a given time. The culmination of a monk's ascetic rigours is the act of sallekhana, in which a monk lies on one side on a bed of thorny grass and ceases to move or take food. This act of ritual starvation is the monk's ultimate act of nonattachment, in which he lets go of the body for the sake of his soul. The ascetic's preparatory rigours, which point to and culminate in this act, generally take 30 years or more to perform. Although it is a tenet of Jaina doctrine that no one can achieve liberation in this corrupt time, it is thought that the act of sallekhana nevertheless has value, because it can improve a soul's spiritual situation in the next birth.

 

Religious disciplines of the laity.

The life of a lay votary is a preparatory stage to the rigours of ascetic life. The lay votary is enjoined to observe eight primary behavioral qualities (which vary but usually include the avoidance of meat, wine, honey, fruits, roots, and night eating) and 12 vows: five anuvratas ("little vows"), three gunavratas, and four shiksavratas. The anuvratas are vows to abstain from gross violence, falsehood, and stealing; to be content with one's own wife; and to limit one's possessions. The other sets of vows are supplementary in nature, meant to strengthen and protect the anuvratas. They involve avoidance of unnecessary travel, harmful activities, and the pursuit of pleasure; fasting and control of diet; offering of gifts and service to monks, the poor, and fellow believers; and voluntary death if the observance of vows proves impossible.

The samayika, a lay meditative and renunciatory ritual of limited duration, aims at strengthening equanimity of mind and resolve to pursue the spiritual discipline of the Jaina dharma. This ritual brings the lay votary close to the demands required of an ascetic for a limited time. It may be performed in a person's own house, in a temple, in a fasting hall, or before a monk.

Eleven pratimas, or stages of a householder's spiritual progress, are listed. Medieval writers conceived pratima (literally, "statue") as a regular progressing series, a ladder leading to higher stages of spiritual development. The last two stages lead logically to renunciation of the world and assumption of the ascetic life.

The disciplines to which Jaina laity must adhere have influenced significantly the types of vocations that they pursue. Since all of their actions should minimize acts of violence to other living creatures, Jainas tend to pursue commercial and professional enterprises and to avoid such careers as military service. This has created an ironic situation in which many adherents to a highly austere and ascetic religion are wealthy.

 

Sacred times and places.

 

Festivals and fairs.

The principal Jaina festivals are connected with the five major events in the life of each Tirthankara. These mark the occasions of the Tirthankara's descent into his mother's womb, birth, renunciation, attainment of omniscience, and final emancipation.

The most popular Jaina festival is Paryusana, or Paijusana, which occurs in the month of Bhadrapada (August-September). Paryusana literally means (1) pacification by forgiving and service with wholehearted effort and devotion and (2) staying at one place for the monsoon season. On the last day of the festival, Jainas distribute alms to the poor and take a Jina image in procession through the streets. Confession is performed during the festival to remove all ill feelings about conscious or unconscious misdeeds during the past year.

Twice a year, for nine days (March-April and September-October), a fasting ceremony known as oli is observed. These are also the eight-day festivals corresponding to the mythical celestial worship of images of the Jinas.

On the full-moon day of the month of Karttika (October-November), at the same time that Hindus celebrate Dewali (festival of lights), Jainas commemorate the Nirvana of Mahavira by lighting lamps. Five days later is Jñanapañcami (literally, "The Fifth Level of Knowledge," i.e., kevala), which the Jainas celebrate with temple worship and with worship of the scriptures. Mahavira Jayanti, the birth date of Mahavira, is celebrated in early April.

The Jainas also celebrate a number of festivals in common with Hindus, such as Holi (spring festival), Navaratra (nine nights festival), and Pongal (a South Indian spring festival).

 

Pilgrimages and shrines.

The erection of shrines and the donation of religious manuscripts are regarded as pious acts. Most villages or towns inhabited by Jainas have at least one Jaina shrine; some have become pilgrimage sites. Lists of these shrines have been composed, and the most noteworthy shrines are offered adoration in daily worship.

Places of pilgrimage were created at sites marking the principal events in the lives of Tirthankaras. Parasnath Hill and Rajgir in Bihar and Shatruñjaya and Girnar hills on the Kathiawar Peninsula are among such important ancient pilgrimage sites. Other shrines that have become pilgrimage destinations are Shravana Belgola in Karnataka, Mounts Abu and Kesariaji in Rajasthan, and Antariksha Parshvanatha in Akola district, Maharashtra.

Several Jaina cave temples, dating from as early as the 2nd century BC, have been discovered and excavated. Cave temples are found at Udayagiri and Khandagiri, in Orissa; Rajgir, in Bihar; Aihole, in Karnataka; Ellora, in Maharashtra; and Sittannavasal in Tamil Nadu.

 

Temple worship and observance.

Temple worship is mentioned in early texts that describe gods worshiping Jina images and relics in heavenly eternal shrines. Worship, closely associated with the obligatory rites of the laity, is offered to all liberated souls, to monks, and to the scriptures. Though Tirthankaras remain unaffected by offerings and worship, such actions serve as a form of meditative discipline for the votary offering them. Daily worship includes recitation of the names of the Jinas and idol worship by bathing the image and making offerings to it. Svetambaras decorate images with clothing and ornaments. The worshiper also chants hymns of praise and prayers and mutters sacred formulas. Such Jaina rituals show considerable similarity in form to Hindu rituals. A long-standing debate within both Jaina communities over the centuries has concerned the relative value of external acts of worship and internalized acts of mental discipline and meditation.

 

Domestic rites and rites of passage.

Early Jaina literature is silent about domestic rites and rites of passage marking the main events in a person's life. These rituals are modeled mainly on the 16 Hindu samskaras, which include conception, birth, naming, first meal, tonsure, investiture with the sacred thread, beginning of study, marriage, and death. They are first discussed in Jinasena's 9th-century work, Adipurana.

 

Welfare institutions.

Jainas are renowned for various types of munificence, such as sponsoring pilgrimages, famine relief, relief to Jaina widows and the poor, and maintaining shelters for old animals to save them from slaughter (an act of ahimsa). In addition, Jainas have encouraged research in and publication of editions of Jaina canonical and commentarial texts. Noteworthy in this connection are the Bharatiya Jñanapitha publishing house in Varanasi, Uttar Pradesh, and Lalbhai Dalpatbhai Institute for Indological Research at Ahmadabad, Gujarat.

 

JAINA LITERATURE

 

Canonical and commentarial literature.

Jaina canonical scriptures do not belong to a single period, nor is any text free from later revision or additions. The sacred literature, preserved orally from the time of Mahavira, was first systematized in a council at Patna about the end of the 4th century BC, and again in two later councils at Mathura and Valabhi in the early 3rd century AD. The fourth and last council, at Valabhi in the mid-4th century, is considered the source of the existing Svetambara canon, though some commentators insist that the present reading is in accordance with the Mathura council.

The original, unadulterated teachings of the Jinas are said to be contained in 14 texts, called the Purvas ("Foundation"), which are now lost. Svetambaras and Digambaras agree that a time will come when the teachings of the Jinas will be completely lost; Jainism will then disappear from the earth and reappear at an appropriate point in the next time cycle (kalpa). The two sects disagree, however, about the extent to which the corruption and loss of the Jinas' teachings has already occurred. Consequently, the texts for each sect differ.

The Svetambaras follow an extensive canon (agama) as the repository of their tradition, which they believe is based upon compilations of Mahavira's discourses by his disciples. This canon preserves the teachings of Mahavira in an imperfect way, as it is thought to be mixed with much that was not said by the Jina. The number of texts considered to make up the Svetambara canon has varied over time and by monastic group. Largely through the influence of the 19th-century German scholar Johann Georg Bühler, however, Western scholars have fixed the number of texts in this canon at 45, divided into six groups: the 11 Angas ("Parts"; originally there were 12, but one, the Drstivada, has been lost), 12 Upangas (subsidiary texts), four Mula-sutras (basic texts), six Cheda-sutras (concerned with discipline), two Culika-sutras (appendix texts), and 10 Prakirnakas (mixed, assorted texts). The Angas contain several dialogues, mainly between Mahavira and his disciple Indrabhuti Gautama, presumably recorded by the disciple Sudharman, who transmitted the teachings to his own disciples.

According to modern scholars, the Acaranga and the Sutrakrtanga, among the Angas, and the Uttaradhyayana, among the Mula-sutras, are among the oldest parts of the canon. The Cheda-sutra text, Dashashrutaskandha, concludes with the Kalpa-sutra, which recounts the lives of the Jinas and includes an appendix of rules for monastic life and a list of eminent monks.

Bhadrabahu, whom tradition credits with being the last Jaina sage to know the contents of the Purvas, is asserted to be the author of the Niryuktis, the earliest commentaries on the Jaina canonical texts. These concise, metrical commentaries, written in Prakrit, gave rise to an expanded corpus comprising texts called Bhasyas and Curnis. These were composed between the 4th and 7th centuries and contain many ancient Jaina historical and legendary traditions, along with a large number of popular stories brought into the service of Jaina doctrine. The Bhasyas and Curnis, in turn, gave rise in the medieval period to a large collection of Sanskrit commentaries. Haribhadra, Silanka, Abhayadeva, and Malayagiri are the best-known authors of such commentaries.

Digambaras give canonical status to two works in Prakrit: the Karmaprabhrta ("Chapters on Karman," also called Shatkhandagama) and the Kasayaprabhrta ("Chapters on the Kasayas"). The Karmaprabhrta, based on the now-lost Drstivada text, deals with the doctrine of karman and was committed to writing by Pushpadanta and Bhutabalin in the mid-2nd century; the Kasayaprabhrta, compiled by Gunadhara from the same source at about the same time, deals with the passions that defile and bind the soul. Later commentaries by Virasena (8th century) and his disciple Jinasena (9th century) on the Kasayaprabhrta are also highly respected by Digambaras.

 

Philosophical and other literature.

In addition to the canons and commentaries, the Svetambara and Digambara traditions have produced a voluminous corpus of literature, written in several languages, in the areas of philosophy, poetry, drama, grammar, music, mathematics, medicine, astronomy, astrology, and architecture. In Tamil, the epics Cilappatikaram and Jivikacintamani, which are written from a Jaina perspective, are important works of early postclassical Tamil literature. Jaina authors were also an important formative influence on Kannada literature. The Adipurana of the Jaina lay poet Pampa (another text dealing with the lives of Rsabha, Bahubali, and Bharata) is the earliest extant piece of mahakavya ("high poetic") Kannada literature. Jainas were similarly influential in the Prakrit languages, Apabhramsa, Old Gujarati, and, later, Sanskrit. A particularly important literary figure in Prakrit and Sanskrit was the Svetambara monk Hemacandra (12th century), who composed an important Prakrit grammar, as well as poetry, philosophical treatises, and a mammoth epic poem on the lives of the 63 Jaina mahapurusas, entitled Trisastishalakapurusacaritra.

Other noncanonical Jaina writers on philosophy include Mallavadin I (4th century), Siddhasena Divakara (c. 5th century), Haribhadra Suri (c. 8th century), Samantabhadra (before the 5th century), Akalanka (c. 8th century), Siddharsi Ganin (10th century), Shantisuri (11th century), Vidyanandin (c. 8th-9th century), Anantakirti (10th century), Manikyanandin (11th century), Prabhacandra (11th century), and Vadi Deva Suri (12th century). Among later authors, UpadhyayaYashovijaya (c. 17th century), a versatile scholar, is especially noteworthy.

Digambaras also value the Prakrit works of Kundakunda (c. 2nd century), including the Pravacanasara (on ethics), the Samayasara (on fine entities), the Niyamasara (on Jaina monastic discipline), and the six Prabhrtas ("Chapters") on various religious topics. Of similar importance is the Tattvarthadhigama-sutra of Umasvamin (or Umasvati), whose work is claimed by both communities. Composed early in the Christian Era, the Tattvarthadhigama-sutra was the first work in Sanskrit on Jaina philosophy dealing with such subjects as logic, epistemology, ontology, ethics, cosmography, and cosmogony; it generated numerous commentaries, including one by Umasvati himself.

 

RELIGIOUS SYMBOLISM AND ICONOGRAPHY

Image worship was introduced at an early stage, perhaps even during the century immediately following the death of Mahavira. The Jina himself appears to have made no statement regarding the worship of images. Descriptions of stupas (reliquaries for the bones and ashes of saints), commemorative pillars, and tree shrines appear in early Jaina texts, which also refer to the worship in the heavens by gods of images of the four legendary Shashvata Jinas ("Eternal Victors") and of costly relic boxes. Mention is made of shilapatas, which apparently were stone plaques or reliefs placed on lion thrones underneath trees, such as those associated with the worship of Yakshas (mythical nature spirits), and also depicted on Buddhist reliefs from Bharhut (2nd century BC). The shilapatas appear to be the prototypes of the later Jaina ayagapatas (tablets of homage) from Mathura (Uttar Pradesh state), which show representations of stupas, caitya pillars surmounted by elephants, dharmacakras (wheels of the law), and the astamangalas (eight auspicious symbols). Later ayagapatas show a Jina attended by two nude disciples and the figure of the monk Kanha Samana with his disciples, or they depict the figure of a noblewoman with attendants. (see also iconography)

The earliest extant Tirthankara image is possibly the highly-polished Mauryan period torso from Lohanipur, near Patna. Numerous Tirthankara images in the sitting and standing postures dating from the early Christian Era have been uncovered in excavations of a Jaina stupa at Mathura. The earliest images of Tirthankaras are all nude. The various Jinas are distinguished by inscriptions giving their names carved on the pedestals, but later iconographic devices such as symbols specific to each Jina did not evolve until about the 5th century.

Worship of the 16 principal Jaina Tantric goddesses, the Mahavidyas, was probably introduced in the Gupta age. From the 6th to the 11th century a common pair of attendants was employed in sculpture for all the Tirthankaras, but from about the 9th century 24 shasanadevatas were evolved, each one to attend a different Tirthankara. The names of many of the attendants suggest Hindu or Buddhist influence.

The religious merit that accrues from hearing and reading Jaina texts encouraged the careful and loving preservation of illustrated manuscripts. The miniature paintings on palm-leaf and paper manuscripts preserved in the Jaina monastic libraries provide a continuous history of the art of painting in western India from the 11th century to the present. The lives of the Jinas and legends of Jaina saints provide a framework for the artists to depict gods and goddesses, throne rooms and village interiors, gardens, and temples. Religious symbols such as the ashtamangalas and the 14 dreams of the mothers of the Tirthankaras frequently appear in paintings.

In addition to the miniatures and to painted wooden book covers that often show mythological scenes, paintings on cloth are also known. Wall paintings are found on cave shrines at Sittanavasal (Tamil Nadu state) and at Ellora.

Jaina temples generally contain a number of metal images of various types and metal plaques showing auspicious symbols. Metal images of the Jinas are also kept by pious Jainas for home devotion. Among the earliest known bronzes are one of Parshvanatha in the Prince of Wales Museum of Western India in Bombay, which may date from the 1st century BC, and a group of bronzes (1st-3rd century AD) from Chausa in Bihar in the Patna Museum.

 

JAINISM AND OTHER RELIGIONS

 

Jainism, Hinduism, and Buddhism.

Jainism, Hinduism, and Buddhism share a discourse made available through the Sanskrit language and the dialects (Prakrits) derived from it. Having a set of key concepts in common has enabled these traditions to finely hone their religious debates. For example, all three traditions share a notion of karman as the actions of individuals that determine their future births; yet, each has attached connotations to the concept that are uniquely its own. This is also true with terms such as dharma (often translated "duty," "righteousness," or "religious path"), yoga ("ascetic discipline"), and yajña ("sacrifice," or "worship"). This Sanskritic discourse has been brought into the service of the religious and philosophical speculations, as well as the polemics, of each of these traditions.

The same circumstance occurs in the ritual life and literature of each religion. In the ritual sphere, for example, the abhiseka, or head-anointing ritual, has had great significance among all three, especially in royal contexts. The best-known example of this ritual is the one performed every 12 to 14 years on the statue of Bahubali at the Jaina pilgrimage site at Shravana Belgola. The structure of this ritual is similar in each religious context; in each case, however, it has specific meanings peculiar to that context.

In the literary sphere, each tradition developed an extensive corpus of canonical and commentarial literature, and each has developed a body of narrative literature. For example, so great was the influence of the story of Rama in the classical Hindu Ramayana, that the Buddhists and Jainas felt obliged to retell the story in their own terms. Jaina literature includes 16 different tellings of this story in Sanskrit and Prakrit.

Finally, each tradition shares a similar understanding of the ascetic life, though each understands it as functioning properly only within the context of its own religious system. Many of the terms applied to figures in each monastic organization are the same (though not necessarily the same in meaning), and several of the monastic ritual and meditative activities are similar in structure.

 

Jainism and Islam.

In reference to Muslim influence on Jainism, it has been suggested that the concept of ashatanas--activities that are unfitting or indecent in a temple--reveals a notion of the sanctity of the temple that is more evocative of Muslim barakah ("holiness") than of any traditional Jaina attitude. The most obvious influence of Islam is seen, however, in the repudiation by the Svetambara Lonkasaha sect of image worship as something without canonical support. A parallel sect, the Terapanthin, also arose among the Digambaras. (see also Shvetambara)

Jaina influence at the Mughal court of Akbar is a bright chapter in Jaina history. Akbar honoured Hiravijaya Suri, then the leader of the Svetambara Tapa gaccha (subgroup). His disciples and other monks gained the respect of the Mughal emperors Jahangir, Shah Jahan, and even the Muslim chauvinist Aurangzeb. Akbar issued a decree prohibiting animal slaughter near important Jaina sites during the Paryusana festival. Jahangir also issued decrees for the protection of Shatruñjaya, and Aurangzeb issued a decree favouring the Jainas with respect to proprietary rights over Mount Shatruñjaya. Mughal painting, influential in different schools of Indian painting, also influenced Jaina miniature painting. (see also Mughal dynasty)

 

자이나교 (── 敎, Jainism)

BC 6세기경에 바르다마나(Vardhamna)가 당시의 정통 베다(초기 힌두교) 의례에 반대해 창설한 인도의 종교이자 철학. 제24대 티르탕카라(Tirthankara : 구원자)이며 지나(Jina : 승리자, 자이나교라는 이름이 여기에서 유래했음)로 마하비라(Mahvra : 위대한 영웅)로도 알려졌고 그의 선례를 따르는 것이 자이나교의 중심내용을 이룬다. 자이나교를 처음 주창한 사람들은 베다 시대의 동물 희생제에서 만연했던 살생 관행과 관념에 반기를 든 한 종파에 속했을 것으로 추측된다. 창조신을 믿지 않는 자이나교는 아힝사(ahimsa)의 교리, 즉 어떠한 생명도 살상하지 않을 것을 윤리의 핵심으로 삼고 인간의 본성을 완전하게 하는 것이야말로 주로 고행과 수도생활을 통해 성취해야 할 종교적 이상으로 여기고 있다.

역사

자이나교도에 따르면 그들의 신앙은 영원하며 매 시대마다 티르탕카라에 의해 그 진리가 드러났다고 한다. 티르탕카라들은 모두 완전함과 절대적 자유를 성취했고 그런 다음 세계에 자이나교를 설파했다. 전통적으로 자이나교의 창시자로 여겨지는 첫번째 티르탕카라는 리샤바(abha)인데, 그에 대해서는 베다와 푸라나에 이름이 나오는 것 외에는 아무 것도 알려진 것이 없다. 그리고 BC 8세기말에 죽었다고 하는 제23대 티르탕카라인 파르슈바 이전까지의 티르탕카라들에 대해서는 역사적 증거가 없다.

역사적 인물이며 자이나교의 실질적 창시자는 마하비라이다. 그는 BC 599년경 지금의 비하르 주 파트나 근처에서 태어났다. 아버지는 지배 계급인 크샤트리아(4개의 힌두 사회 계급 중 2번째)였고 나타족의 족장이었다. 마하비라는 고타마 싯다르타(붓다)와 동시대인으로 그보다 좀더 일찍 태어났고 불교문헌에는 나타푸트라(Ntaputra : 나타족의 아들)라는 명칭으로 나온다. 28세 무렵 수도 생활을 시작하여 고행과 명상 끝에 정각(正覺)을 이루었다. 그뒤 약 30년 동안 자이나로서 가르침을 설했고 BC 527년 비하르 주에 있는 파바에서 생을 마감했다. 그이후로 파바는 자이나교의 주요순례지 중 하나가 되었다. 힌두교 신년 축제일인 데왈리는 마하비라를 기리며 대대적인 순례를 하는 날이기도 하다. 자이나교는 철학적 견해의 차이로 분열된 적은 없지만 설립 당초부터 분열의 움직임이 일었다. BC 4~3 세기에 자이나교도는 승려들의 규칙과 규범에 관한 문제로 두 파로 갈라지기 시작하여 적어도 AD 1세기말에는 두 파가 완전히 분리되기에 이르렀다. 디감바라파(Digambara : 空衣派)는 수도자들은 아무 것도 소유하지 말아야 하며, 심지어 옷도 입을 수 없다고 주장했다. 또한 그들은 여자들은 구원받을 수 없다고 믿었다. 그러나 여기에 슈베탐바라파(Svetambara : 白衣派)는 다른 견해를 가지고 있었다.

경전

슈베탐바라에 따르면 마하비라 이래 구전되어온 경전이 BC 4세기말경에 열린 종교회의에서 체계화되고 기록되었다고 한다. 그러나 그것이 현재의 모습을 갖추게 된 것은 800여 년 후(AD 454/467)라는 데 대체로 일치하고 있다. 슈베탐바라의 경전(agama)은 45부(部)로 이루어졌다. 그중 11부는 앙가(Aga : '부분'이라는 뜻이며, 12번째인 드리슈티바다는 14세기 이전에 망실되었음)이고, 12부는 우팡가(Upga : 副本)이며 4부는 물라수트라(Mla-sutra : 기본서), 6부는 체다수트라(Cheda-sutra : 수행과 관계된 것), 2부는 쿨리카수트라(Clik-sutra : 부록), 10부는 프라키르나카(Prakraka : 잡다한 문헌들)이다. 디감바라는 프라크리트로 씌어진 〈업(業)에 관한 장(章) Karmaprabhta〉·〈카샤야에 관한 장 Kayaprbhta〉 등 2권을 경전으로 삼고 있고 그외 몇 가지 작품들과 주석서들도 매우 중시하고 있다.

철학

자이나교의 형이상학은 세계를 각기 궁극적이며 독립적인 두 범주로 나누어 보는 이원론적 체계이다. 영혼, 즉 생명체를 의미하는 명아(命我 jiva)는 동물·식물·인간은 물론이고 바람과 불 같은 자연력에도 침투해 들어가는 것으로 보고 있으며 영혼이나 생명이 없는 것을 의미하는 비명아(非命我 ajiva)는 공간·시간·물질 등을 포함한다. 다음으로 가장 중요한 개념은 (業 karma)이라는 개념이다. 힌두교와 불교에서는 이것을 다소 추상적인 개념으로 보고 있는데 반해 자이나교에서는 미묘하고 눈에 보이지는 않지만 그래도 물질적인 실체로 보고 있으며 이것이 명아에 흘러들어가 들러붙음으로써 명아를 윤회에 얽매이게 한다고 생각한다. 업의 유입은 여러 생에 걸친 참회와 고행에 의해 막을 수 있고 결국 인간이 노력하여 얻고자 하는 궁극 목표인 해탈에 이를 수 있다. 곧 영혼은 해탈에 도달한 영혼과 윤회 속에 아직 헤매고 있는 영혼으로 나누어진다.

윤리

자이나교의 윤리는 명아와 업의 철학에서 도출된다. 인간의 제일의 의무는 자신과 다른 생물들의 명아를 발현시키고 완전하게 하는 것이므로 아힝사, 즉 어떠한 생물도 해치지 않는 것이 가장 중요한 원칙이 된다. 자이나교도는 늙고 병든 동물을 위해 피난처와 쉴 집을 마련하여 이곳에서 자연사할 때까지 돌보아준다. 3가지 이상적 실천목표인 삼약다르샤나(samyagdarana : 진실한 신앙)·삼약지냐나(samyagjñna : 진실한 지식)·삼약차리타(samyakcrita : 진실한 행동)는 삼보(三寶), 즉 라트나트라야(ratnatraya)로 알려져 있다.

신화 및 우주론

신들은 바바나바시(bhavanvs : 가옥의 신)·비안타라(vyantara : 중간 지위의 신)·지오티슈카(jyotika : 빛의 신)·바이마니카(vaimnika : 천체의 신)의 4부류로 나뉜다. 그리고 이들은 다시 몇 개의 그룹으로 분류된다. 그밖에도 힌두교의 영향을 짐작하게 하는 신들이나 고대 인도인들이 공통적으로 숭배했던 몇몇 신들을 비롯해 여러 신과 여신들이 자이나교 경전에서 언급되고 있다. 이 모든 신들은 티르탕카라를 비롯해 해탈을 이룬 영혼들에게 종속된 지위에 있다. 시간은 영원하며 형체가 없는 것으로 본다. 세계는 무한하며 창조된 적이 없다. 공간(ka)은 모든 곳에 편재하고 형체가 없으며 우주의 모든 존재가 거하는 곳이다. 공간은 우주적 공간(lokka)과 비우주적 공간(a-lokka)으로 나누어지는데, 후자는 그 안에 아무런 실체도 가지고 있지 않다. 우주의 중심에는 인간·동물·신·악마를 비롯해 모든 생물체들이 살고 있는, 움직이는 영혼의 영역이 가로놓여 있다. 이 중심부 위에는 2부분으로 이루어진 상층 세계가 있고 그 아래에는 7층으로 나뉘어진 하층 세계가 놓여 있다. 자이나교도는 성인들을 기리는 기념 탑을 여러 개 세웠으며, 돌로 만든 그들의 건축물과 조각은 양에서나 질에서나 필적할 만한 대상을 찾기 어렵다. 자이나교 사원들에는 일반적으로 여러 유형의 금속 조상(彫像)들과 상서로운 상징들을 그려놓은 금속판들을 많이 소장하고 있다. 자이나교는 세상 만물에 대한 관용을 가르치며, 다른 종교에 대해서는 무비판적 태도를 취한다. 타종교와 경쟁 의식을 갖지 않고 자기 신앙을 전파하는 데에도 열렬하지 않다. 구자라트와 마하라슈트라 주의 상인들 중 신도가 많다.

 

Bibliography

BIBLIOGRAPHY

 

General sources:

Good introductions are HERMANN JACOBI, "Jainism," in Encyclopædia of Religion and Ethics, vol. 7, pp. 465-474 (1928); and COLETTE CAILLAT, "Jainism," in The Encyclopedia of Religion, ed. by MIRCEA ELIADE, vol. 7, pp. 507-514 (1987). Standard works include HERMANN JACOBI (trans.), Gaina Sutras, 2 vol. (1884-95, reissued as Jaina Sutras, 1968), with noteworthy introductions by Jacobi to each volume; JOHANN GEORGE BUHLER, On the Indian Sect of the Jainas, trans. from German, 2nd ed. (1963); HELMUTH VON GLASENAPP, Der Jainismus (1925, reprinted 1964), the most comprehensive text on Jainism, and The Doctrine of Karman in Jain Philosophy, trans. from German (1942); and WALTHER SCHUBRING, The Doctrine of the Jainas (1962; originally published in German, 1935), a scholarly work, and The Religion of the Jainas, trans. from German (1966). See also CHHOTELAL JAIN, Chhotelal Jain's Jaina Bibliography, 2nd. rev. ed., edited by SATYA RANJAN BANNERJEE, 2 vol. (1982); AMULYACHANDRA SEN, Schools and Sects in Jaina Literature (1931); JAGMANDERLAL JAINI, Outlines of Jainism (1916, reprinted 1982); A.L. BASHAM, History and Doctrine of the Ajivikas (1951, reprinted 1981), a discussion of the Ajivika influence on early Jainism; CHHOGMAL CHOPRHA, A Short History of the Terapanthi Sect of the Swetamber Jains and Its Tenets, 4th ed. (1950); BIMALA CHURN LAW, Mahavira: His Life and Teachings (1937), a good introduction to the subject; and PADMANABH S. JAINI, The Jaina Path of Purification (1979), a survey that discusses the Jaina understanding of karmic bondage and the path to liberation.

 

Special studies:

NATHMAL TATIA, Studies in Jaina Philosophy (1951, reprinted 1980), especially the discussion on the problem of ajñana, or false sense of reality, in various systems; NARENDRA NATH BHATTACHARYYA, Jain Philosophy: Historical Outline (1976); SATKARI MOOKERJEE, The Jaina Philosophy of Non-Absolutism: A Critical Study of Anekantavada, 2nd ed. (1978), a standard work by an authority on Indian philosophy; MOHANLAL MEHTA, Jaina Philosophy, new ed. (1971), Jaina Culture (1969), and Jaina Psychology: A Psychological Analysis of the Jaina Doctrine of Karma (1957); SHANTARAM B. DEO, History of Jaina Monachism from Inscriptions and Literature (1956); R. WILLIAMS, Jaina Yoga (1963, reprinted 1983), a masterly analysis of the Jaina ethics concerning the laity, with critical notes on authors of different sourcebooks; DAYANAND BHARGAVA, Jaina Ethics (1968); HARI SATYA BHATTACHARYA, Jain Moral Doctrine (1976); T.K. TUKOL, Sallekhana Is Not Suicide (1976), a treatise on the monastic ritual of self-starvation; KAMAL C. SOGANI, Ethical Doctrines in Jainism (1967); VILAS ADINATH SANGAVE, Jaina Community: A Social Survey, 2nd ed. (1980); CHAMPAT R. JAIN, Jaina Law (1926); COLETTE CAILLAT, Attonements in the Ancient Ritual of the Jaina Monks (1975; originally published in French, 1965); COLETTE CAILLAT and RAVI KUMAR, The Jain Cosmology (1981); and A.N. UPADHYE, Upadhye Papers (1983), a collection of essays on Jaina history and literature by an eminent Jaina scholar.

 

Literature and art:

M. WINTERNITZ, History of Indian Literature, vol. 2 (1933, reprinted 1971; originally published in German, 1920); H.R. KAPADIA, A History of the Canonical Literature of the Jainas (1941), a good description of the Jaina canon; A. CHAKRAVARTY, Jaina Literature in Tamil (1974), a survey of Jaina works in this South Indian language and Jaina influence on Tamil literature; JAGDISHCHANDRA JAIN, Prakrit Narrative Literature: Origin and Growth (1981); B.C. BHATTACHARYA, The Jaina Iconography, 2nd rev. ed. (1974), a brief outline of the subject; JYOTINDRA JAIN and EBERHARD FISCHER, Jaina Iconography, 2 vol. (1978), a later work; UMAKANT P. SHAH, Studies in Jaina Art (1955), a review of Jaina art in North India, with a discussion of various symbols in Jaina worship and a good bibliography, and Akota Bronzes (1959), a description of rare Jaina bronzes from a site in Gujarat; A. GHOSH (ed.), Jaina Art and Architecture, 3 vol. (1974-75); KLAUS FISCHER, Caves and Temples of the Jains (1956); MOTI CHANDRA, Jain Miniature Paintings from Western India (1949), a standard textbook; W. NORMAN BROWN, The Story of Kalaka (1933), a well-known work on Kalakacarya and miniature Jaina paintings; UMAKANT P. SHAH (ed.), Treasures of Jaina Bhandaras (1978); and P.B. DESAI, Jainism in South India and Some Jaina Epigraphs (1957), a useful compilation.

  • 참고문헌 (자이나교)
    • 인도철학(강좌총서 2) : Hiriyanna, 김형준 역, 예문서원, 1993
    • 세계종교사 하 : J. B. 노스, 윤이흠 역, 현음사, 1986
    • 인도철학사(대우학술총서 인문사회과학 9) : 길희성, 민음사, 1984
    • The Jaina Philosophy of Non-Absolutism:A Critical Study of Anekntavda, 2nd ed. : Satkari Mookerjee, 1978
    • Jaina Yoga : R. Williams, 1963(reprinted 1983)
    • The Doctrine of the Jainas : Walther Schubring, 1962
    • Studies in Jaina Philosophy : Nathmal Tatia, 1951(reprinted 1980)
    • Jain Miniature Paintings from Western India : Moti Chandra, 1949
    • A History of the Canonical Literature of the Jainas : H. R. Kapadia, 1941
    • Mahavira:His Life and Teachings : Bimala Churn Law, 1937
    • The Story of Kalaka : W. Norman Brown, 1933
    • History of Indian Literature, vol. 2 : M. Winternitz, 1933(reprinted 1971)
    • Der Jainismus : Helmuth von Glasenapp, 1925(reprinted 1964)
    • Gaina Stras, 2 vol. : Hermann Jacobi, 1884-95
    • Jainism, 〈Encyclopaedia of Religion and Ethics, vol 7, pp. 465-474〉 : Hermann Jacobi, 1928

 

   



 
 
 

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