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철학 - 지혜의 탐구


도가와 도교


I. Introduction

Taoism, along with Confucianism, is one of the two major indigenous religio-philosophical traditions that have shaped Chinese life for more than 2,000 years. (see also  Chinese religion)


도가사상은 유교사상과 더불어 2,000년 동안 중국과 그 주변국의 생활과 사상을 형성해온 중국 고유의 종교철학이다. 

In the broadest sense, a Taoist attitude toward life can be seen in the accepting and yielding, the joyful and carefree sides of the Chinese character, an attitude that offsets and complements the moral and duty-conscious, austere and purposeful character ascribed to Confucianism. Taoism is also characterized by a positive, active attitude toward the occult and the metaphysical (theories on the nature of reality), whereas the agnostic, pragmatic Confucian tradition considers these issues of only marginal importance, although the reality of such issues is, by most Confucians, not denied.

도가사상의 특징은 실용주의적인 유교와는 달리 현실세계에 대한 신비주의적이고 형이상학적인 이론에 있다.

More strictly defined, Taoism includes: the ideas and attitudes peculiar to the Lao-tzu (or Tao-te Ching; "Classic of the Way of Power"), the Chuang-tzu, the Lieh-tzu, and related writings; the Taoist religion, which is concerned with the ritual worship of the Tao; and those who identify themselves as Taoists.

 도가에 대한 엄격한 정의에는 3가지 측면이 있다. 즉 도가철학은 〈노자 老子〉 또는 〈도덕경〉, 장자 莊子·열자 列子등과 같은 경전의 사상, ''를 숭배하는 종교로서의 도교, 도가를 모두 포함한다. 

Taoist thought permeates Chinese culture, including many aspects not usually considered Taoist. In Chinese religion, the Taoist tradition--often serving as a link between the Confucian tradition and folk tradition--has generally been more popular and spontaneous than the official (Confucian) state cult and less diffuse and shapeless than folk religion.

도가사상은 중국문화의 광범위한 범위에 걸쳐 스며 있다. 종교로서 도교는 국교인 유교와 비정형적인 민간신앙의 중간에 위치한다.

Taoist philosophy and religion have found their way into all Asian cultures influenced by China, especially those of Vietnam, Japan, and Korea. Various religious practices reminiscent of Taoism in such areas of Chinese cultural influence indicate early contacts with Chinese travellers and immigrants that have yet to be elucidated.

 도가사상과 도교는 중국문화의 영향을 받은 아시아의 한국·일본·베트남 등지로 퍼져나갔다. 

Both Western Sinologists and Chinese scholars themselves have distinguished--since Han times (206 BC-AD 220)--between a Taoist philosophy of the great mystics and their commentators (Tao-chia) and a later Taoist religion (Tao-chiao). This theory--no longer considered valid--was based on the view that the "ancient Taoism" of the mystics antedated the "later Neo-Taoist superstitions" that were misinterpretations of the mystics' metaphorical images. The mystics, however, should be viewed against the background of the religious practices existing in their own times. Their ecstasies, for example, were closely related to the trances and spirit journeys of the early magicians and shamans (religious personages with healing and psychic transformation powers). Not only are the authors of the Tao-te Ching, the Chuang-tzu (book of "Master Chuang"), and the Lieh-tzu (book of "Master Lieh") not the actual and central founders of an earlier "pure" Taoism later degraded into superstitious practices but they can even be considered somewhat on the margin of older Taoist traditions. Therefore, because there has been a nearly continuous mutual influence between Taoists of different social classes--philosophers, ascetics, alchemists, and the priests of popular cults--the distinction between philosophical and religious Taoism in this article is made simply for the sake of descriptive convenience. (see also  ecstasy)

한대(漢代 : BC 206~AD 220)를 전후하여 이전의 위대한 도가사상과 이후의 미신적인 도교로 구분하기도 한다. 사실상 도교는 형성 때부터 고래(古來)의 주술사상과 관련이 깊다. 그러므로 여기에서 도교를 철학과 종교로 구분하는 것은 단지 서술의 편의를 위한 것뿐이다. 

There is also a tendency among scholars today to draw a less rigid line between what is called Taoist and what is called Confucian. The two traditions share many of the same ideas about man, society, the ruler, Heaven, and the universe--ideas that were not created by either school but that stem from a tradition prior to either Confucius or Lao-tzu.

오늘날에 와서는 도가사상과 유교를 엄격하게 구분하지 않는 경향이 있다. 양자는 고대의 전통 속에서 인간·사회·군주·하늘·우주에 대해 많은 사상을 공유하고 있다.

Viewed from this common tradition, orthodox Confucianism limited its field of interest to the creation of a moral and political system that fashioned society and the Chinese empire; whereas Taoism, inside the same world view, represented more personal and metaphysical preoccupations.

 이러한 공유점 위에서 유교는 중국의 도덕과 정치체제에 관심을 두었고 도교는 보다 개인적이고 형이상학적인 부분에 관심을 나타내었다.

In the case of Buddhism--a third tradition that influenced China--fundamental concepts such as the nonexistence of the individual ego and the illusory nature of the physical world are diametrically opposed to Taoism. In terms of overt individual and collective practices, however, competition between these two religions for influence among the people--a competition in which Confucianism had no need to participate because it had state patronage--resulted in mutual borrowings, numerous superficial similarities, and essentially Chinese developments inside Buddhism, such as the Ch'an (Japanese Zen) sect. In folk religion, since Sung times (960-1279), Taoist and Buddhist elements have coexisted without clear distinctions in the minds of the worshippers.

 한편 불교는 개인의 자아를 부정하고 현실세계의 허망함을 주장하기 때문에 도교와 극히 대립적이다. 그러나 경쟁적인 포교과정 속에서 양자는 많은 유사성을 갖게 되었다. 송대(宋代) 이후 민간종교에서 도교와 불교는 명확한 구분없이 공존했다.

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